Energy and CO2 emissions

The global railway sector is working extremely hard to maintain its environmental advantage by improving its energy efficiency and reducing its CO2 emissions. For example, 28 European members of UIC have collectively committed to reduce CO2 emissions per passenger kilometer and ton/kilometer by 50% by 2030, and are well on track to meet this target.

Improving energy efficiency is the most important aspect of the railway’s strategies to reduce CO2 emissions, and of course has significant business benefits by reducing costs. For example, French railway SNCF’s energy costs are around €800m annually, with 80% used to power trains and 20% to operate buildings. SNCF is introducing a 19-step energy-saving program to reduce this consumption, and shaving 5 or 10% off their energy use would deliver not only significant environmental benefits but also help reduce costs.

Railway companies use a combination of technical and non-technical means to improve energy efficiency. Technical measures include using more modern rolling stock with lower energy consumption, or innovative technologies such as regenerative braking – a system that harnesses the energy produced during braking, transferring it back into the rail system, allowing other trains to use it.
Non-technical measures include energy-efficient driving techniques, which focus on developing train drivers’ expertise to save energy or diesel fuel costs. Linked to both these points is the installation of clear Energy Metering on trains, so that operators can monitor their energy consumption and assess which approaches save the most energy.

The global railway sector is working extremely hard to maintain its environmental advantage by improving its energy efficiency and reducing its CO2 emissions. For example, 28 European members of UIC have collectively committed to reduce CO2 emissions per passenger kilometer and ton/kilometer by 50% by 2030, and are well on track to meet this target.

Improving energy efficiency is the most important aspect of the railway’s strategies to reduce CO2 emissions, and of course has significant business benefits by reducing costs. For example, French railway SNCF’s energy costs are around €800m annually, with 80% used to power trains and 20% to operate buildings. SNCF is introducing a 19-step energy-saving program to reduce this consumption, and shaving 5 or 10% off their energy use would deliver not only significant environmental benefits but also help reduce costs.

Railway companies use a combination of technical and non-technical means to improve energy efficiency. Technical measures include using more modern rolling stock with lower energy consumption, or innovative technologies such as regenerative braking – a system that harnesses the energy produced during braking, transferring it back into the rail system, allowing other trains to use it. Non-technical measures include energy-efficient driving techniques, which focus on developing train drivers’ expertise to save energy or diesel fuel costs. Linked to both these points is the installation of clear Energy Metering on trains, so that operators can monitor their energy consumption and assess which approaches save the most energy.

Environment Strategy Reporting System (ESRS)

Methodology and Policy

UIC and CER General Assemblies, in order to provide a unified approach to environmental and sustainability topics for the European railway sector, voted in December 2010 the document “Moving towards Sustainable Mobility: Rail Sector Strategy 2030 and beyond – Europe (UIC-CER 2010)": http://www.shop-etf.com/en/moving-t...

The strategy outlined in the document describes how the rail sector should be performing in
environmental terms in 2030 and 2050 and it is built on four key environmental topics: climate protection, energy efficiency, exhaust emissions and noise. It sets out specific objectives to be met by 2030 and, as uncertainties make prediction for the longer timeframe of 2050 more
difficult, more general “visions” for 2050.

Data are regularly collected and stored on the website: http://www.co2-data.org

The tool gives also a yearly update data to “Ecopassenger” and “EcoTransit”, the UIC-developed ecocalculators.

UIC-IEA Railway Handbook: Energy Consumption and CO2 emissions of World Railway sector

2015 marks the fourth year of collaboration with the International Energy Agency (IEA) to produce the Handbook on Energy Consumption and CO2 emissions of the world railway sector. After the success of previous editions,

UIC and IEA have been increasingly encouraged to pursue this joint effort in close cooperation. The handbook is the result of the harmonization of the UIC Energy/CO2 railway database with the IEA World Energy Balances and CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion database, together with some projections and modeling included at the Mobility Model of IEA.

It represents a unique source of direct data of the railway sector verified and consistency checked by the IEA. The aim of the Handbook is to provide institutions, associations and decision-makers with robust key performance indicators as the foundation on which to build the greening of our future transport choices.

The transport sector was responsible for 23.1% of global CO2 emissions in 2012. 3.6% of transport emissions were due to the rail sector, while railways transported over 8% of the world’s passengers and goods. The relative contribution of rail to global CO2 emissions has decreased since 1990 while total CO2 emissions have risen by almost 50%.

The 2015 Railway Handbook edition provides a special focus on vehicle efficiency delivering a clear message to the audience: to meet this growing demand by increasing investments on new and efficient rolling stock and technical improvements for existing fleet will produce important improvements both in transport efficiency and environmental impact.

Energy Billing Project

More and more traction units in Europe are equipped with metering systems collecting data regarding energy consumption and the positions of the traction units. To avoid different metering systems being installed according to national specifications it is necessary for cross-border traffic to standardise the exchange of data. In this light the Energy Billing Project was set up in October 2005 in order to ensure an exact billing of energy consumption for interoperable cross-border rail traffic in Europe.

Together with the standardisation of the metering equipment by CENELEC the results of the Energy Billing project will enable rail operators to pay the energy bill according to the actual energy consumption only.

UIC leaflet 930

The Energy Billing Project has elaborated the UIC leaflet 930 “Exchange of data for cross-border railway energy settlement”. The leaflet was published in November 2009.

The purpose of the UIC leaflet 930 is to:

  • Describe the processes and protocols used for the exchange of energy consumption data between Infrastructure Managers which by respecting existing national systems thereby contribute to an improvement in European railway sector interoperability.
  • Define the technical requirements for the checking and verification of this data.
  • Allow Railway Undertakings to identify their genuine energy consumption and therefore pay exactly what is consumed; associate the consumption of each train to the bill and the energy price (including existing models) which will lead finally to energy savings.

The final results of the Energy Billing project will be presented on the "UIC Energy Metering & Billing Day" on 3rd February 2010 at UIC Headquarters in Paris.

Supporting documents to UIC leaflet 930

The Energy Billing Project has elaborated the following supporting documents to the UIC leaflet 930, which will support the implementation of Energy Billing Systems.

  1. Supporting document 1: Border points and polygons
  2. Supporting document 2: Estimation systems for un-metered trains
  3. Supporting document 3: Right of access to the consumption data by Railway Undertakings and Public Information provided by Infrastructure Managers

Zero Carbon Railways

How to report green electricity use?

Recent data showed that European railways used in 2009 nearly 30% of renewable electricity, with a significant increase in the last years (See UIC/IEA Railway Handbook 2013 e link). Decarbonization of electricity mix is one of the drivers for CO2 emission reduction: the higher the percentage of electricity from renewable sources used for traction, the lower is the CO2 emitted in the atmosphere.
In parallel to the growth in renewable energy production, the voluntary use of renewable electricity by companies has also been growing at fast pace.

Therefore definining a transparent methodology for tracking tracking green electricity purchasing became fundamental for the UIC Environment Strategy Reporting System ..

This report is the result of an intense year working spent on consulting related stakeholders (IEA, EEA, DG Energy…) and UIC Experts from the Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions in order to agree on a common approach when reporting on Carbon performance internally and at sector level (ESRS).

The conclusion of the report suggests highlited the importance of using both he electricity mix and the market-based mix.

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